What is a brick?

What is a brick?

History of bricks in Iran

Brick in Iran dates back to 6000 thousand years ago and in Shush and Kashan there are remains of brick kilns that date back to 4000 thousand years BC. Brick in Bulbuli language means Persian agor, on which manuscripts and laws were written. In Iran, several brick buildings have been built, such as Kasra Arch, Gonbad Kavous, Isfahan Grand Mosque, Pol-e Dokhtar and Kabar Dam. . The Iranian reward went to Egypt, then to Rome and Europe, and from Europe to India and China in ancient times.
The Russians used a brick with dimensions of 20 x 10 x 5 in the construction of Kazakh houses, and later this brick became known as a Kazakh brick. In Iran, after World War II, brick-making methods became industrial, and the Iranians produced a variety of solid, perforated bricks, hollow ceilings, and wall blocks.


Compressive strength of bricks

Brick strength refers to the compressive strength of its flat surface in kilograms per square centimeter or pounds per square inch. The compressive strength and water absorption of bricks depend on the melting time of the brick in the kiln and the heating given to it during the baking process. Compressive strength is a fundamental criterion when constructing load-bearing walls of multi-storey buildings. In other cases, its compressive strength is always greater than that required for normal construction work. Most American-made bricks have a compressive strength of 200 to 500 kg / cm2. Compressive strength of about 8% of bricks is less than low and resistance of 25% of bricks is more than high. Another factor that is effective in the appropriate and stable resistance of the brick over the years is climatic or climatic conditions. Frequent freezing and thawing of water inside brick cracks and porosity in the mortar, which is due to improper construction, can lead to the destruction of brick walls more than other factors. In addition to the method of execution, the choice of texture and role of the brick, the type of mortar and the way it is poured also play a role in the long-term durability of the brick wall.

How to make bricks

The clay is removed from places near the factory and transported to the factory. There it is poured into the crusher and other chemicals are added if needed. The required amount of water is added to the past materials of the crusher to make them into a paste. The dough material is then directed to the compressor. Each piece of dough is guided to a wire saw, and cut into standard sizes by it. Due to the shrinkage of the clay during drying, the pieces of clay paste are cut slightly larger than the finished dimensions of the brick. The bricks are then placed one after the other in several layers on wheeled carts. Due to the high pressure and compaction of the clay paste as it leaves the pipe, the dough bricks have become so hard that they can support the weight of several more layers. The chariots are guided by rails to one of several drying rooms and kept at a moderate temperature for several days. In drying rooms, water is taken from the bricks and the bricks are dried, but in this case, they are still easily broken. After drying, the bricks are led into a kiln and baked at a very high temperature for 24 hours. Gas-fired stoves or hothouses are long and have doors at both ends. The chariots enter the kiln from one end and exit from the other. This process causes the raw brick to enter the kiln on one side and the baked brick to leave the kiln on the other side.


Brick color and texture

The color of the brick is a function of the raw materials and the care time and the temperature of the kiln. Most paints are due to the iron in the mixture, which is an integral part of the excavated clay. Iron is converted to iron oxide, which is red, due to heat. Bright brick colors like jujube are the result of low oven temperatures. If more heat is given to the brick over a longer period of time, the brick will become harder and stronger. Otherwise, the brick will be light in color and semi-combustible, which has low compressive strength and high water absorption. Such bricks are more decorative and in the facade of buildings with more resistant bricks as Back straps are used.
The doughy clay surfaces protruding from the rectangular tube are smooth. If the clay is not chemically treated, the resulting brick will be ordinary brick, which is usually used as the backbone of masonry structures. If the process of painting the clay is done with chemical additives and the temperature of th

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